Characteristics of relative and radiometric dating technologies
Different materials with different properties are suited to different uses.The ability to image and manipulate placement of individual atoms in tiny structures allows for the design of new types of materials with particular desired functionality (e.g., plastics, nanoparticles). Different kinds of matter exist (e.g., wood, metal, water), and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.The number of protons in the atomic nucleus (atomic number) is the defining characteristic of each element; different isotopes of the same element differ in the number of neutrons only.Despite the immense variation and number of substances, there are only some 100 different stable elements.This idea is included in recognition of the fact that organizing science instruction around disciplinary core ideas tends to leave out the applications of those ideas.The committee included this fourth idea to stress the interplay of physical science and technology, as well as to expand students’ understanding of light and sound as mechanisms of both energy transfer (see LS3) and transfer of information between objects that are not in contact.Each element has characteristic chemical properties. The periodic table, a systematic representation of known elements, is organized horizontally by increasing atomic number and vertically by families of elements with related chemical properties.
Atoms also combine due to these forces to form extended structures, such as crystals or metals.These core ideas can be applied to explain and predict a wide variety of phenomena that occur in people’s everyday lives, such as the evaporation of a puddle of water, the transmission of sound, the digital storage and transmission of information, the tarnishing of metals, and photosynthesis. Matter can be understood in terms of the types of atoms present and the interactions both between and within them.And because such explanations and predictions rely on a basic understanding of matter and energy, students’ abilities to conceive of the interactions of matter and energy are central to their science education. C: Stability and Instability in Physical Systems Core Idea PS3: Energy PS3. The states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, or plasma), properties (e.g., hardness, conductivity), and reactions (both physical and chemical) of matter can be described and predicted based on the types, interactions, and motions of the atoms within it.A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces (e.g., blocks, construction sets).Objects or samples of a substance can be weighed, and their size can be described and measured.
Modern communication, information, and imaging technologies are applications of scientific understandings of light and sound and their interactions with matter.