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A stone circle located in the Nabta Playa basin may be one of the world's oldest known archeoastronomical devices.Built by the ancient Nubians about 4800 BCE, the device may have approximately marked the summer solstice.Based on engraved plans of Meroitic King Amanikhabali's pyramids, Nubians had a sophisticated understanding of mathematics and an appreciation of the harmonic ratio.The engraved plans is indicative of much to be revealed about Nubian mathematics.The Lebombo bone from the mountains between Swaziland and South Africa may be the oldest known mathematical artifact.with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving or writing.It was first thought to be a tally stick, as it has a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the tool, but some scientists have suggested that the groupings of notches indicate a mathematical understanding that goes beyond counting.Various functions for the bone have been proposed: it may have been a tool for multiplication, division, and simple mathematical calculation, a six-month lunar calendar, The importance of mathematics to an educated Egyptian is suggested by a New Kingdom fictional letter in which the writer proposes a scholarly competition between himself and another scribe regarding everyday calculation tasks such as accounting of land, labor and grain.
African calendars include the Akan calendar, Egyptian calendar, Berber calendar, Ethiopian calendar, Igbo calendar, Yoruba calendar, Shona calendar, Swahili calendar, Xhosa calendar, Borana calendar, and Luba calendar.
Since the first modern measurements of the precise cardinal orientations of the Egyptian pyramids were taken by Flinders Petrie, various astronomical methods have been proposed as to how these orientations were originally established.
Ancient Egyptians may have observed, for example, the positions of two stars in the Plough / Big Dipper which was known to Egyptians as the thigh.
All of the mathematical learning of the Islamic world during the medieval period was available and advanced by Timbuktu scholars: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.
One of the major achievements found in Africa was the advance knowledge of fractal geometry and mathematics.
Because their methods of calculation could not handle most fractions with a numerator greater than one, ancient Egyptian fractions had to be written as the sum of several fractions.