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Thus all the first-row transition metals except Sc form stable compounds that contain the 2 ion, and, due to the small difference between the second and third ionization energies for these elements, all except Zn also form stable compounds that contain the 3 ion.
Cu and Mo have different distributions in the Porphyry Ore Zone with Cu concentrating above the porphyry and with Mo inside of porphyry intrusion. We again use valence electron configurations and periodic trends, as well as the principles of chemical bonding, thermodynamics, and kinetics, as tools to describe the properties and reactivity of these elements.Because all the -block elements are important components of the materials the modern world depends on for its continuing technological development, while most of the first-row transition metals are essential for life.The second- and third-row transition metals behave similarly but with three important differences: The highest possible oxidation state, corresponding to the formal loss of all valence electrons, becomes increasingly less stable as we go from group 3 to group 8, and it is never observed in later groups.Binary transition-metal compounds, such as the oxides and sulfides, are usually written with idealized stoichiometries, such as Fe O or Fe S, but these compounds are usually cation deficient and almost never contain a 1:1 cation:anion ratio.
Some Trends in Properties of the Transition Metals The electronegativity of the elements increases, and the hydration energies of the metal cations decrease in magnitude from left to right and from top to bottom of the The similarity in ionization energies and the relatively small increase in successive ionization energies lead to the formation of metal ions with the same charge for many of the transition metals.