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There were no anti-Jewish pogroms recorded in Poland.
According to professor Colin Tatz, between 18, there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine (see: Southwestern Krai parts of the Pale) which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless.
The English version of Gergel's article was published in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms in the Ukraine in 1918–1921." the Jewish First Guard Battalion from Minsk – at the insistence of its own members – was deployed by the Bolsheviks against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions.
According to Elissa Bemporad, the "violence endured by the Jewish population under the Poles encouraged popular support for the Red Army, as Jewish public opinion welcomed the establishment of the Belorussian SSR." Irrespective of war-zone violence, the Jewish political groups, communal institutions, and cultural organizations of all stripes were active in the Second Polish Republic.
The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely, depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in, massacres.
All outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence have become retrospectively known as pogroms.
The first atrocities against Jewish civilians, on a genocidal scale of destruction, were committed during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine.
Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall.
At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared 'Are there any Jews here? 'No, no Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true! Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-yidish historiche arkhiv, which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York.
The Russian-language term was adopted in the English language in order to describe mass violence of 18 directed against Jews within the Pale of Settlement first created by Catherine the Great in what would become most of present-day Ukraine and Belarus, as well as parts of Lithuania, Moldova and Poland.
The term pogrom is sometimes used, as well, to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups. On the left, two peasant women are assaulting a Jewish man with pitchfork and broom.
In the early 20th century the pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well.