Updating images of south sudan lauren graham and scott patterson dating
The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports.
Only the digital image (usually in JPEG or JPEG2000 format) of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip.
BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information.
Before data can be read from a chip, the reader needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone: the date of birth, the date of expiry and the document number.
In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport to be traced, by sending specific BAC authentication requests. published a survey on security and privacy issues in passport protocols, where a new technique to track passports is introduced, based on the response time of basic commands.
allowing an attacker to guess/crack the key required for reading the chip.
To check country signing keys the ICAO PKD Grunwald states that if an EAC-key – required for reading fingerprints and updating certificates – is stolen or compromised, an attacker can upload a false certificate with an issue date far in the future.A biometric passport (also known as an e-passport, e Passport or a digital passport) is a traditional passport that has an embedded electronic microprocessor chip which contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of the passport holder.It uses contactless smart card technology, including a microprocessor chip (computer chip) and antenna (for both power to the chip and communication) embedded in the front or back cover, or center page, of the passport.The passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip.Public key infrastructure (PKI) is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult to forge when all security mechanisms are fully and correctly implemented.
The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems (e-borders).